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Constituents of Well-being

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Family Cohesion

Family cohesion refers to the relationships and operational links between individuals who recognise each other as part of the same family unit. The avoidance of tensions and conflicts over a declining resource base, opportunities to observe and learn from nature, the ability to express cultural and spiritual values and the ability to participate in nature based activities is important to family cohesion.


Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Well-being Category

Good Social Relations


How do ecosystem services contribute to this constituent of well-being?


Father and son share a moment whilst playing at the beach

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Social interactions between close friends and family members are critical to wellbeing, and are usually cited as the primary determinant of individual subjective wellbeing. In particular, interactions and the quality of the relationship with a partner can moderate the effect of negative events of life conditions and assist in maintaining a stable level of wellbeing.

Outdoor recreation provides opportunities for shared experiences for families, groups of friends and communities. These shared experiences reinforce social bonds with family and friends and support social cohesion at the community level.

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Table 1:The relative magnitude (to other ecosystem services) each ecosystem service contributes to Family Cohesion.

Ecosystem Service Category Ecosystem Service 0
Provisioning Services
Food products            
Water for Consumption            
Building and Fibre Resources            
Fuel Resources            
Genetic Resources for Cultivated Products            
Biochemical, medicinal and pharmaceutical resources            
Ornamental Resources            
Transport Infrastructure            
Regulating Services
Air Quality            
Habitable Climate            
Water Quality            
Arable Land            
Buffering Against Extremes            
Reduce Pests and Diseases            
Productive Soils            
Noise Abatement            
Cultural Services
Iconic Species            
Cultural Diversity            
Spiritual and Religious Values            
Knowledge Systems            
Aesthetic Values            
Effect on Social Interactions            
Sense of Place            
Iconic Landscapes            
Recreational Opportunities            
Therapeutic Landscapes